OfCom has published a report on online piracy, which found that the practice is becoming less common and that pirates tend to spend more on legitimate content than non-pirates. The research, which was not funded by the entertainment industry, was conducted by Kantar Media among 21,474 participants and took place in 2012 across four separate stages. Over that time, the ratio of legal to illegal content fell — confirming a suspected trend as legal streaming options became more available. It also confirmed another suspicion — that a relatively small number of web users are responsible for most piracy. In OfCom’s data, just two percent of users conducted three quarters of all piracy. Ofcom described piracy as “a minority activity”. Of those surveyed, 58 percent accessed music, movie or TV content online, while 17 percent accessed illegal content sources. Those who admitted pirating content spent on average £26 every three months on legitimate content, set against an average spend of £16 among non-pirates.
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‘A counting Bloom filter (CBF) generalizes a Bloom filter data structure so as to allow membership queries on a set that can be changing dynamically via insertions and deletions. As with a Bloom filter, a CBF obtains space savings by allowing false positives. We provide a simple hashing-based alternative based on d-left hashing called a d-left CBF (dlCBF). The dlCBF offers the same functionality as a CBF, but uses less space, generally saving a factor of two or more. We describe the construction of dlCBFs, provide an analysis, and demonstrate their effectiveness experimentally’